Why do some governments fail to use existing state resources? Conventional wisdom suggests that governments are spendthrift. Yet, in much of the developing world, local governments underspend their budgets. Professor Holland’s book project explores the puzzle of fallow states, or the underuse of existing state resources. Through a statistical analysis of subnational spending and peri-urban land use patters across the developing world and in-depth case studies of Latin American countries with varying resource use across time and space, this project seeks to shed new light on what states do, and fail to do, for their citizens.